中国足彩网官网旧版
 

英語聽力

聽力入門英語演講VOA慢速英語美文聽力教程英語新聞名校課程聽力節目影視聽力英語視頻

看紙質書好還是電子書好?研究稱看紙質書有助于理解內容

kira86 于2019-04-19發布 l 已有人瀏覽
增大字體 減小字體
看電子書好還是紙質書好?一方面取決于你的閱讀偏好;一方面取決于你的閱讀材料是敘事或虛構內容,還是其它類型的內容。
    小E英語歡迎您,請點擊播放按鈕開始播放……

看書.jpg
Study: Paper Reading More Effective Than Screen Reading

研究:閱讀紙質書比在屏幕上閱讀更有效

If you want to make sure that you understand this story as fully as possible, you might consider printing the article and reading it on paper. That is one of the findings of a recent study of research done on the differences between paper and screen reading.

如果你想確保自己盡可能全面地理解這個故事,你可以考慮將這篇文章打印出來,并在紙上閱讀。這是最近一項關于紙質閱讀和屏幕閱讀之間存在的差異的研究發現之一。

Virginia Clinton carried out the research examination. She is a professor of Education, Health and Behavior at the University of North Dakota. She found what she called a "small but significant" difference in reading text from screen versus paper.

維吉尼亞·克林頓進行了這項研究調查。她是北達科他州大學的教育、健康和行為學教授。她發現,在屏幕上閱讀文本與在紙張上閱讀文本之間存在一個“微小但顯著”的差異。

Researchers have been investigating for years the ways in which screens affect the quality of a person's reading. The magazine Scientific American reported that at least 100 studies have been published on the issue since the 1980s.

研究人員多年來一只在研究屏幕如何影響一個人的閱讀質量。《科學美國人》(Scientific American)雜志報道稱,自上世紀80年代以來,至少有100項關于這個問題的研究被發表。

Until the early 1990s, most studies found that people read more slowly and with less accuracy on screens than on paper.

直到20世紀90年代初,大多數的研究發現,人們在屏幕上閱讀的速度比在紙上閱讀的速度要慢,準確度也更低。

However, later studies show more mixed results. Some continued to report findings similar to those earlier studies. Others suggested technological improvements over the years had improved reading quality on screens.

不過,后來的研究結果五花八門,好壞參半。一些人繼續報告與早期研究結果相似的結果,而其他人則認為技術多年來的進步提高了在屏幕上閱讀的質量。

Clinton's aim was to bring together some of the most recent findings on reading performance, reading speed and a skill known as metacognition.

克林頓的目標是收集一些關于閱讀表現、閱讀速度和元認知(即對認知的認知)技能的最新發現。

Clinton looked at 33 past studies that examined paper versus screen reading. All of the studies were done between 2008 and 2018. The studies collectively had 2,799 study subjects, including both children and adults. All were native English speakers and had usual reading skills for their age.

克林頓研究了33項曾將紙張閱讀和屏幕閱讀進行了對比的研究。所有的研究都是在2008年到2018年間進行的。這些研究共涉及2799名研究對象,包括兒童和成人。他們都是以英語為母語的人,具備與他們同齡人相當的閱讀技能。

Clinton's examination found that reading from paper generally led to better understanding and improved a person's performance on tests connected to the reading material. And, she found no major differences in reading speed between the two. In other words, paper reading was found to be more efficient.

克林頓的研究發現,(比起在屏幕上閱讀)在紙上閱讀通常能讓人更好地理解文本,以及提高一個人在與閱讀材料相關的測試中的表現。而且,是在兩種媒介上的閱讀速度并沒有明顯差異的前提下得出的結論。換句話說,研究發現,在紙上閱讀更有效率。

Such differences were notable only when the reading materials were expository texts-- or explanatory and based on fact. Clinton said she found no major difference when it came to narrative, fictional texts.

只有當閱讀材料是說明性的文本或者是基于事實的闡述性文本時,這種差異才會顯著。克林頓表示,她沒有發現在閱讀敘事內容和虛構內容時,(在理解方面)有什么重大區別。

Clinton also found that paper readers usually have a higher recognition of how well they have understood a text than screen readers. This skill is called metacognition. The word "cognition" means the mental action of increasing knowledge and understanding. "Metacognition" simply means thinking about one's own thinking.

克林頓還發現,在紙上閱讀的人通常比在屏幕上閱讀的人更能理解文本。這種技能被稱為元認知。“認知”一詞是指增加知識和理解的心理活動。“元認知”就是對自己的思維進行思考的活動。

Clinton and other researchers have found screen readers often believe they understand a text better than they really do. And, they are more likely than paper readers to overestimate how well they would do on a test of the materials they have read.

克林頓與其他研究人員發現,屏幕閱讀者往往認為自己對文本的理解比實際對文本的理解更透徹。而且,在屏幕上閱讀的人更有可能高估自己在閱讀材料測試中的表現。

Clinton said this is common among all readers.

克林頓表示,這在所有讀者中都是很常見的現象。

She said, "We think that we're reading the story or the book better than we actually are. We think we understand what we are reading better than how we are actually reading."

她說:“我們認為我們在讀的故事或書的效果比我們實際的閱讀效果要好。我們自以為比起實際閱讀結果更能理解閱讀內容。”

Yet, this inflated sense of understanding, or overconfidence, is especially common among screen readers.

然而,這種膨脹的理解能力或者說過度自信,在用屏幕閱讀的人群中尤其常見。

Clinton said there are many possible reasons for such findings. Overconfidence of screen readers, for example, could be the result of a distracted, less focused mind.

克林頓表示,導致這個結果的原因可能有很多。比如,用屏幕閱讀的人高估的原因可能是由于注意力分散、注意力不集中等原因。

Reader preference is also important, she said. Research shows the majority of people -- of all ages -- prefer reading from paper.

她說,讀者的偏好也很重要。研究表明,所有年齡段的大多數人都更喜歡閱讀紙質書。

But, if someone prefers screen reading to paper reading, that person's understanding of the material is not likely to suffer.

但是假如一個人更喜歡屏幕閱讀方式而不是紙質閱讀方式,那么他對材料的理解就不會受到影響。

Clinton said, "If you are enjoying the reading process, you're going to be more involved. You're going to be paying better attention. Preferences are a key issue here."

克林頓表示:“如果你享受閱讀的過程,你就會更多地參與其中。你的注意力會更集中。偏好在這個問題上很關鍵。”

Several studies have found that people often think of paper materials as more important and serious.

幾項研究發現,人們通常認為紙質材料更重要,更有儀式感。

If you are reading from paper, your mind thinks, 'This is something important. I need to pay attention to it', Clinton said.

克林頓表示到:“如果你閱讀紙質材料,你的大腦會想‘這很重要。我需要注意一些。’”

Readers might connect computer screens with fun, less serious activities - such as checking social media or watching Netflix. That, Clinton said, could explain why most studies find no major difference in screen and paper among narrative, fictional reading materials. Clinton described this kind of reading as "enjoyment reading."

讀者可能會將電腦屏幕與一些有趣的、不那么嚴肅的活動聯系起來,比如查看社交媒體或在Netflix看電影。克林頓表示,這可以解釋為什么大多數涉及敘事和虛構的閱讀材料的研究中,發現屏幕閱讀效果與紙質閱讀效果并沒有很大的區別。克林頓將這種閱讀描述為“享受式閱讀”。

Don't stop reading from screens

不要停止在屏幕上閱讀

Although her findings may support paper reading over screen reading, Clinton says she does not believe screen reading should be avoided.

盡管她的發現可能支持紙質閱讀勝過屏幕閱讀,但克林頓表示她不認為就該避免屏幕閱讀。

Instead, she points to new and developing tools that can be used to improve a screen reader's understanding and focus.

相反,她指出了一些新的、正在開發的工具,可以用來提高屏幕閱讀者的理解能力和專注力。

For example, when you're reading off of a screen, it can be programmed that you have to answer questions and get them right before you can continue. Paper can't make you do that.

例如,當你在屏幕上閱讀時,程序會可以讓你回答問題,并在回答正確之后才能繼續閱讀下一章。但在紙上閱讀就做不到這一點。

Other tools in development will offer students reading at a lower level more simple texts while providing their other classmates more complex versions of the same text.

其它正在開發的工具將為閱讀水平較低的學生提供比較簡單的文字材料,而同時為其他同學提供相同內容的更復雜版本。

Clinton said, "I think the answer, or appropriate response, to seeing findings like mine...is to think of 'Okay, what can screen do that paper can't do?'"

克林頓表示:“我認為,恰當應對我這樣的研究的方式就是想想‘好吧,在屏幕上能能做到哪些在紙書上做不到的事。”

Clinton's findings were published earlier this year in the Journal of Research in Reading. She also presented her results this month at the American Educational Research Association's yearly meeting, held in Toronto, Canada.

克林頓的研究結果今年早些時候發表在《閱讀研究雜志》上。她還在本月于加拿大多倫多舉行的“美國教育研究協會”年會上展示了她的研究結果。

I'm Caty Weaver.

我是凱蒂·韋弗。

And I'm Ashley Thompson.

我是阿什利·湯普森。

小e英語Jewel翻譯!

 1 2 下一頁

分享到

添加到收藏

VOA慢速排行

中国足彩网官网旧版 ok足球竞彩比分直播 福彩 足球比分网逛球街好 qq分分彩 海南环岛赛 球探足球比分老版本 球探网足球比分 2014年世界杯即时指数 广西快乐10分 湖南快乐10分 qq分分彩 河北20选5 辽宁11选5 3d试机号 体彩p5 山西泳坛夺金