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邊聽音樂邊工作或學習?背景音樂會扼殺創造力

kira86 于2019-04-02發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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英國中央蘭開夏大學的認知心理學家研究稱,背景音樂會影響創造力,不過如果旋律和音高變化起伏越小,你所受到的干擾也會越小。
    小E英語歡迎您,請點擊播放按鈕開始播放……

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Background Music Might Stifle Creativity

背景音樂可能會扼殺創造力

Let's play a word game. What word can be put in front of the words "stick," "maker," and "point" to make three new compound words? Again...stick, maker, and point.

我們來玩一個單詞游戲。在單詞“stick”、“maker”和“point”前面可以放哪個單詞來構成三個新的復合詞?再重復一遍,三個單詞分別是“stick”、“maker”和“point”。

(five-second silence)

靜等五秒。

Ready for the answer? "Match. So that would then combine to make the words matchstick, matchmaker, and matchpoint." Emma Threadgold, a cognitive psychologist at the University of Central Lancashire in England. And the point of tasks like these, she says, is to measure creativity. (If you didn't get it right away, don't worry, neither did I.)

準備好答案了嗎?答案就是“Match”。這樣就可以組合成單詞matchstick(火柴棍), matchmaker(媒人),和matchpoint(賽點)。英國中央蘭開夏大學(University of Central Lancashire)認知心理學家Emma Threadgold表示到。她說,這類任務的目標是衡量一個人的創造力。(如果你沒想出答案,也別擔心,我也沒想出來。)

Maybe you had music playing as you thought about the words. And, of course, many listen to music while they work. So Threadgold and her colleagues recently used such word puzzles to investigate whether listening to music affects creativity.

或許你在想單詞的時候放了音樂。當然,很多人在工作時都聽音樂。所以Threadgold和她的同事們用這種字謎游戲來研究聽音樂是否會影響創造力。

They asked volunteers to solve 19 puzzles, while listening to either a foreign-language tune (Spanish version of "King of Wishful Thinking," by Go West); an instrumental version of the same song (instrumental of "King of Wishful Thinking"); a familiar English-language tune (Pharrell's "Happy"); or silence.

研究人員要求志愿者各自在聽外語歌曲(Go West的《癡心妄想之王》西語版本)時、聽同一首歌的器樂版(《癡心妄想之王》器樂版)時、聽一首熟悉的英文歌(法瑞爾的《快樂》)時、或者什么都不聽時來解19個字謎謎題。

The results? In every case, volunteers listening to music solved fewer puzzles than their counterparts in total quiet. Suggesting that background music does not really aid this kind of creative task. Maybe because these puzzles require some sort of mental speech rehearsal - trying out different word combos using your inner voice.

結果呢?無論哪種情況,聽音樂的志愿者都比完全保持安靜的志愿者解出的謎題要少。這表明背景音樂對完成這種創造性任務并沒有任何幫助作用,也許是因為這些謎題需要在心里打腹稿——即在心里嘗試不同的單詞組合。

And therefore they're more susceptible to changing state sounds such as music, in comparison to steady state sounds such as library noise.

“因此,與圖書館噪音等恒穩態(定態)聲音相比,他們更容易受到比如音樂之類處于變化狀態的聲音的影響。”

And in fact, the researchers tested library noise too, (library noise) and the sounds of typing and rustling papers. None of those noises impaired volunteers' performance at all, compared to the silent control group. The results are in the journal Applied Cognitive Psychology.

事實上,研究人員也測試了圖書館的噪音(播放圖書館噪音)和鍵盤聲以及翻動紙張所發出的沙沙聲響(對志愿者的影響)。與什么也不聽的對照組相比,這些噪音完全沒有影響到志愿者的表現。研究結果發表在《應用認知心理學》雜志上。

Still, if you do insist on listening to music while working, you might try something a little more low-key than Lady Gaga, says Threadgold's colleague John Marsh:

不過,Threadgold的同事約翰•馬什表示,如果你實在要堅持在工作時聽音樂,你可以嘗試嘗試一些比Lady Gaga的歌曲更低調一些的音樂類型。

So if you have a sound with a lot of changing state information in it, changes in pitch or in timbre, that's more disruptive than a sound with fewer of those changes. If you compared a modern pop song with some classical music you'd expect less disruption from that classical music.

“所以,如果你周圍的聲音有很多信息在不斷變化,比如音高或音色方面的變化,那這樣的背景聲音比那些狀態變化更少的聲音更能妨礙你的表現。如果你把現代流行歌曲和一些古典音樂進行比較,你會發現古典音樂所帶來的干擾會更小。”

Even better, though, would be the sound of silence. (Simon and Garfunkel's "Sound of Silence" clip briefly then stops) As in, actual silence.

雖然,更好的還是“寂靜之聲”。(西蒙和加芬克爾的《寂靜之聲》剪輯片段短暫播放后停止)比如置身于真正的安靜當中(無聲狀態)。

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